In atherosclerosis, the gradual buildup of lipid particles into the sub-endothelium of damaged arteries leads to numerous lipid alterations. The absorption of these modified lipids by monocyte-derived macrophages in the arterial wall leads to cholesterol accumulation and increases the likelihood of foam cell formation and fatty streak, which is an early characteristic of atherosclerosis. Foam cell formation is related to an imbalance in cholesterol influx, trafficking, and efflux. The formation of foam cells is heavily regulated by various mechanisms, among them, the role of epigenetic factors like microRNA alteration in the formation of foam cells has been well studied. Recent studies have focused on the potential interplay between microRNAs and foam cell formation in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis; nevertheless, there is significant space to progress in this attractive field. This review has focused to examine the underlying processes of foam cell formation and microRNA crosstalk to provide a deep insight into therapeutic implications in atherosclerosis.
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