Worldwide, there is growing concern about the burden of pneumonia. Severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is frequently complicated by pulmonary and extra-pulmonary complications, including sepsis, septic shock, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and acute cardiac events, resulting in significantly increased intensive care admission rates and mortality rates. Streptococcus pneumoniae (Pneumococcus) remains the most common causative pathogen in CAP. However, several bacteria and respiratory viruses are responsible, and approximately 6% of cases are due to the so-called PES (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, extended-spectrum β-lactamase Enterobacteriaceae, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) pathogens. Of these, P. aeruginosa and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus are the most frequently reported and require different antibiotic therapy to that for typical CAP. It is therefore important to recognize the risk factors for these pathogens to improve the outcomes in patients with CAP.
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