Background: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an invasive phenotype with undesirable clinical features, poor prognosis, and therapy resistance. Ketoprofen is a Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) with anti-tumor properties. Aim: To investigate the effects of Ketoprofen on apoptosis and autophagy in TNBC cell line MDA-MB-231. Methods: The cytotoxic activity of Ketoprofen was assayed by the MTS method. Flowcytometry was utilized to measure the number of apoptotic MDA-MB-231 cells. The expression levels of apoptosis and autophagy markers, JAK2 and STAT3 were determined using quantitative real time-PCR (qRT-PCR) and western blotting methods. Results: Ketoprofen significantly decreased the proliferation of MDA-MB-231 cells compared to control cells. It also considerably induced apoptosis and apoptotic markers in these cells in comparison to controls. Treating the MADA-MB-231 cell line with Ketoprofen had an inhibitory effect on autophagy markers in this cell line. The use of FasL, as a death ligand, and ZB4, as an antibody that blocks the extrinsic pathway of apoptosis, revealed the involvement of the extrinsic pathway in the apoptosis-stimulating effect of Ketoprofen in the MADA-MB-231 cell line. Ketoprofen also hindered the phosphorylation and activation of JAK2 and STAT molecules leading to the inhibition of the JAK/STAT pathway in this TNBC cell line. Conclusion: The outcomes of this study uncovered the anti-TNBC activity of Ketoprofen by inducing apoptosis and inhibiting viability and autophagy in MADA-MB-231 cells. Our data also suggested that Ketoprofen impedes apoptosis in TNBC cells by two different mechanisms including the induction of the extrinsic apoptotic pathway and inhibition of the JAK/STAT signaling.
|Idioma original||Inglés estadounidense|
|Publicación||Molecular Biology Reports|
|Estado||Indizado - ene. 2023|
Nota bibliográficaPublisher Copyright:
© 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature B.V.