Heavy metals in soils and edible tissues of Lepidium meyenii (maca) and health risk assessment in areas influenced by mining activity in the Central region of Peru

Edith Orellana Mendoza, Walter Cuadrado, Luz Yallico, Rosa Zárate, Harold Rusbelth Quispe Melgar, César H. Limaymanta, Vicky Sarapura, Diana Bao-Cóndor

Producción científica: Artículo CientíficoArtículo originalrevisión exhaustiva


Heavy metal contamination of soil and agricultural products is an environmental problem, has an adverse effect
on the quality of food crops, and is a danger to food security and public health. The concentration of arsenic (As),
cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) in surface soils and edible hypocotyls tissues of two ecotypes of
Lepidium meyenii Walpers (maca) was evaluated in three districts of the Junín province, Peru. In addition, the risk
to human health due to exposure to heavy metals from maca consumption was evaluated. Soil samples and maca
hypocotyls were collected in areas influenced by mining and metallurgical activity. The mean concentration of
Cd (0.32 ± 0.23 mg/kg) and Pb (0.20 ± 0.12 mg/kg) in maca samples exceeded the values established by the
Food and Agriculture Organization and the World Health Organization. The bioconcentration factor was less
than 1. The estimated daily intake of each metal was below the oral reference dose. The hazard quotient and
hazard index were less than 1, it is unlikely to cause non-cancer adverse health outcome. The cancer risk for As
and Cd was higher than the tolerable limit (1 × 10􀀀 6) in children and adults. In the district of Ondores, the cancer
risk for As in children was higher than the acceptable limit (1 × 10􀀀 4). Residents of the Ondores district would be
more exposed to As and Cd from consumption of maca hypocotyls. It is very important to carry out continuous
monitoring of other toxic metals in different ecotypes of maca (red, black, yellow, purple, creamy white, pink) in
order to evaluate the variation in the accumulation of heavy metals and the level of toxicity of each metal between
Idioma originalInglés estadounidense
Páginas (desde-hasta)1461
PublicaciónToxicology Reports
EstadoPublicado - 1 ago. 2021

Palabras clave

  • Bioconcentration factor
  • Estimated daily intake
  • Hazard quotient
  • Hazard index
  • Cancer risk

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