In Peru, 24,581 people were diagnosed with tuberculosis (TB) in 2020. Although TB treatments are effective, 3.4–13% are associated with significant adverse drug reactions (ADRs), with drug-induced liver injury (DILI) considered the most predominant. Among the first-line antituberculosis drugs, isoniazid (INH) is the main drug responsible for the appearance of DILI. In the liver, INH is metabolized by the enzymes N-acetyltransferase-2 (NAT2), cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1), and glutathione S-transferase (GST) with two isoforms, GSTT1 and GSTM1. Based on previous studies, we hypothesized that interactions between the GSTT1 and GSTM1 null genotypes induce DILI in TB patients. In this cross-sectional study of 377 participants who completed their anti-TB treatment, we genotyped by revealing the presence or absence of 215- and 480-bp bands of GSTM1 and GSTT1, respectively. We found that the prevalence of the GSTM1 genotype was 52.79% and 47.21% for presence and null, respectively, and for GSTT1 it was 69.76% and 30.24% for presence and null, respectively. Neither genotype was prevalent in the patients who developed DILI (n = 16). We did not confirm our hypothesis; however, we found that the combination of GSTM1 present genotype, GSTT1 null genotype, fast NAT2 acetylators, and CYP2E1 c1/c1 genotype had a significant risk for the development of ADR (OR 11; p = 0.017; 95% CI: (0.54–186.35)). We propose that the presence of the GSTM1 present genotype, GSTT1 null genotype, fast NAT2 acetylators, and CYP2E1 c1/c1 genotype in the Peruvian population could be considered a risk factor for the development of ADR due to therapeutic drug intake.
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