INTRODUCTION: The prison environment in Peru is one of the worst in the continent. In situations such as these, where there is considerable stress, many inmates can develop antisocial disorders, especially if they come from a conflictive family setting. OBJECTIVES: To determine the association between family relationships, social environment and features of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) in the Peruvian prison population in 2016. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Analytical cross-sectional study based on a sub-analysis of the First National Penitentiary Census of Peru in 2016. The sample is the prison population (≥18 years old) that participated in said census, which was carried out in 66 correctional facilities nationwide and reached a coverage of 98.8%. RESULTS: Of the 77,086 prisoners, 76,152 participated in the analysis. The prevalence of antisocial traits was 96% and half of the population met two criteria for the disorder. Independently associated factors were, being male (RPa: 1.35; 1.30-1.40), born outside the capital (RPa: 0.89; 0.88-0, 91), friends in the neighborhood who committed offences (RPa: 1.01; 1.00-1.02) and not living with a father (RPa: 1.00; 1.00-1.01). DISCUSSION: The prevalence of antisocial personality disorder traits in the Peruvian prison population was 96%. We found greater association with the male sex, in those born in Lima and in those who escaped from their home before the age of 15.