Veterinary pharmaceuticals have been recently recognized as newly emerging environmental contaminants. Indeed, because of their uncontrolled or overused disposal, we are now facing undesirable amounts of these constituents in foodstuff and its related human health concerns. In this context, developing a well-organized environmental and foodstuff screening toward antibiotic levels is of paramount importance to ensure the safety of food products as well as human health. In this case, with the development and progress of electric/photo detecting, nanomaterials, and nucleic acid aptamer technology, their incorporation-driven evolving electrochemiluminescence aptasensing strategy has presented the hopeful potentials in identifying the residual amounts of different antibiotics toward sensitivity, economy, and practicality. In this context, we reviewed the up-to-date development of ECL aptasensors with aptamers as recognition elements and nanomaterials as the active elements for quantitative sensing the residual antibiotics in foodstuff and agriculture-related matrices, dissected the unavoidable challenges, and debated the upcoming prospects.
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