Purpose of review Despite the improvements in its management, community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) still exhibits high global morbidity and mortality rates, especially in elderly patients. This review focuses on the most recent findings on the epidemiology, cause, diagnosis and management of CAP. Recent findings There is consistent evidence that the trend in CAP mortality has declined over time. However, the mortality of pneumococcal CAP has not changed in the last two decades, with an increase in the rate of hospitalization and more severe forms of CAP. Streptococcus pneumoniae remains the most frequent cause of CAP in all settings, age groups and regardless of comorbidities. However, the implementation of molecular diagnostic tests in the last years has identified respiratory viruses as a common cause of CAP too. The emergency of multidrug-resistance pathogens is a worldwide concern. An improvement in our ability to promptly identify the causative cause of CAP is required in order to provide pathogen-directed antibiotic therapy, improve antibiotic stewardship programs and implement appropriate vaccine strategies. Summary It is time to apply all the knowledge generated in the last decade in order to optimize the management of CAP.
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