The novel photocatalyst of Fe3O4@SiO2/PAEDTC@MIL-101(Fe) was prepared based on the sol–gel method, and its structure and morphology were determined by SEM mapping, TEM, XRD, FTIR, and N2 adsorption–desorption analyses. The photocatalytic activity of nanocomposite was evaluated in comparison with other particles as well as adsorption and photolysis processes. The effect of operating parameters showed that the complete degradation of penicillin G (PNG) can be provided at a photocatalyst dosage of 0.6 g/L, radiation intensity of 36 W, pH of 5, and time of 60 min. In the optimum condition, 84% TOC removal was attained and the BOD5/COD rate for the treated effluent was above 0.4, which was representative of the high biodegradability of the treated effluent compared to the raw sample. The findings of energy consumption showed that PNG can be easily and effectively treated by the photocatalytic process based on magnetic MIL-101(Fe) with electrical energy per order between 10 and 20.87 kWh/m3. Due to the excellent interaction between the MIL-101(Fe) and Fe3O4@SiO2/PAEDTC, the photocatalyst stability test showed a recyclability of the particles for 5 consecutive reaction cycles with a minimum reduction of 7%. Solution treated with photocatalyst under UV and visible light sources explained that the toxicity of the effluent after treatment is significantly reduced with the growth of Escherichia coli. Scavenging experiments showed that •OH radical and hole (h+) are the main agents in degrading PNG to CO2, H2O, and biodegradable and low-toxicity products. Finally, the findings of the diagnostic analysis and comparative experiments proved that with the interaction of Fe3O4@SiO2, NH2, and MIL-101(Fe), a lower band gap can be prepared for more absorption of photons and pollutant and also more and faster production of active radicals. Graphical Abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.].
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