The IGRA (Interferon Gamma Release Assays) test is currently the standard specific test for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection status. However, a positive test cannot distinguish between active tuberculosis disease (ATBD) and latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). Developing a test with this characteristic is needed. We conducted longitudinal studies to identify a combination of antigen peptides and cytokines to discriminate between ATBD and LTBI. We studied 54 patients with ATBD disease and 51 with LTBI infection. Cell culture supernatant from cells stimulated with overlapping Mycobacterium tuberculosis novel peptides and 40 cytokines/chemokines were analyzed using the Luminex technology. To summarize longitudinal measurements of analyte levels, we calculated the area under the curve (AUC). Our results indicate that in vitro cell stimulation with a novel combination of peptides (Rv0849-12, Rv2031c-14, Rv2031c-5, and Rv2693-06) and IL-1RA detection in culture supernatants can discriminate between LTBI and ATBD.
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