The objective of this work was to evaluate the graft growth and the anatomical characterization of pear (Pyrus communis x P. pyrifolia) and quince (Cydonia oblonga) cultivars grafted on Pyrus calleryana and Chaenomeles sinensis rootstocks. Sprouted graft percentages at 60 days and the length and diameter of the graft sproutings at 120 days were evaluated. Stem cuttings from the grafting region were performed in transversal and longitudinal sections, and the secondary xylem was separated for tissue comparison. The pear trees showed good development on P. calleryana rootstock, and the anatomical sections showed that the vascular tissues were connected, which did not occur when the trees were grafted on C. sinensis, in which the grafts sprouted, but did not develop, and the vascular tissues did not connect. The quince trees showed good development on both rootstocks due to the good connection of the vascular tissues. The connection of vascular tissues is essential for the success of grafting. The evaluated species did not differ significantly as to their secondary xylem tissues. The incompatibility found between the pear trees and the C. sinensis rootstocks is not anatomical.