Objective: To analyse all cases of Nocardia pneumonia occurring between 2010 and 2016 in five Spanish hospitals. Methods: This was a retrospective observational analysis of clinical and microbiological data collected from 55 cases of Nocardia pneumonia. Results: There were one to 20 cases per hospital and six to nine cases per year. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, bronchiectasis, and asthma were the main predisposing underlying respiratory conditions. Thirty-four patients were receiving systemic and/or inhaled corticosteroids prior to infection, eight had neoplasia, and six had haematological malignancies. Clinical and radiological findings were common to pneumonia of other infectious aetiologies, except for the frequent presence of nodules and cavitation. Overall, the 1-year mortality was high (38.2%), and mortality was directly related to the pulmonary disease in 15 patients (27.3%). The most frequently identified species were N. cyriacigeorgica (n = 21), N. abscessus (n = 8), and N. farcinica (n = 5). All Nocardia isolates were susceptible to linezolid and all but two were susceptible to amikacin and trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole. Conclusions: Nocardia pneumonia-associated mortality remains high, probably because of the debilitated status of patients in whom this pathogen is able to cause pulmonary infection.
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