State-of-the-art of portable (bio)sensors based on smartphone, lateral flow and microfluidics systems in protozoan parasites monitoring: A review

Raed H. Althomali, Ebraheem Abdu Musad Saleh, Jitendra Gupta, Aiman Mohammed Baqir Al-Dhalimy, Ahmed Hjazi, Beneen M. Hussien, Amran M. AL-Erjan, Abduladheem Turki Jalil, Rosario Mireya Romero-Parra, Luis Andres Barboza-Arenas

Research output: Contribution to journalOriginal Articlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Up to now, the importance of different analytical methods has increased more and more in terms of the detection of various targets, protozoan parasites included. Despite the advancement of several sensing approaches for detection of them, the development of portable biosensors which can provide point-of-care detection can be considered the next generation of sensing platforms. Among these, smartphone-based bio(sensors), microfluidics systems, and lateral flow biosensors have attracted great attention. To elaborate, all of them have a specific ability to turn into an efficient analytical approach. The accessibility of smartphones can mature a simple communication gadget into an opportunity for easy use sensing device, and alongside that, the small size of the microfluidics system can provide a miniature analytical method that consumes a low number of materials and, in turn, it can bring about the affordable platform. In favor of lateral flow biosensors, the undeniable advantages of this method including low-cost, user-friendly, and in-field diagnosis with good robustness can introduce them as an efficient sensing platform. Hence, the review of the state-of-the-art of portable (bio)sensors based on smartphone, lateral flow, and microfluidics systems can broaden persons’ horizons about novel sensing approaches which can be used for the determination of protozoa parasites. Furthermore, the role of nanomaterials, their benefits, and their drawbacks will be discussed in the following.

Original languageAmerican English
Article number108804
JournalMicrochemical Journal
StateIndexed - Aug 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 Elsevier B.V.


  • Lateral flow assay
  • Microfluidics systems
  • Novel sensing platform
  • Portable (bio)sensors
  • Protozoa parasites


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