Prevalence and Associated Factors of Depression, Anxiety, and Stress in University Students in Paraguay during the COVID-19 Pandemic

Telmo Raul Aveiro-Róbalo, Luciana Daniela Garlisi-Torales, Marisella Chumán-Sánchez, César J. Pereira-Victorio, Mariana Huaman-Garcia, Virgilio E. Failoc-Rojas, Mario J. Valladares-Garrido

Research output: Contribution to journalOriginal Articlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


We aimed to determine the prevalence of depression, anxiety, and stress in university students in Paraguay during the COVID-19 pandemic. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 293 students from four universities in Paraguay in 2021. The DASS-21 mental health scale was used to measure the outcomes (depression, anxiety, and stress) and evaluate their association with socio-educational variables. A total of 77.1% of the participants were women and 136 (46.4%) were between 21 and 25 years old. The prevalence of depression, anxiety, and stress was 74.7%, 87.4%, and 57%, respectively. We found that being a woman and studying at a public university was positively associated with depression, anxiety, and stress. Receiving COVID-19 training increases the prevalence of mental health problems. In conclusion, high levels of anxiety, depression, and stress were found in university students during the COVID-19 pandemic. Being a woman, studying at a public university, and receiving training on COVID-19 were factors associated with a higher prevalence of presenting all the mental health problems evaluated. Furthermore, students aged 31 and over had a higher prevalence of depression and stress.

Original languageAmerican English
Article number12930
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Issue number19
StateIndexed - Oct 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
M.J.V.-G. was supported by the Fogarty International Center of the National Institutes of Mental Health (NIMH) under Award Number D43TW009343 and the University of California Global Health Institute. We are thankful for our respondents for their time and participation in the survey.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 by the authors.


  • COVID-19
  • Paraguay
  • anxiety
  • depression
  • stress


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