INTRODUCTION: An ageing population and steady increase in the rates of neoplasms and chronic degenerative diseases poses a challenge for societies and their healthcare systems. Because of the recent and continued advances in therapies, such as the development and widespread use of non-invasive ventilation (NIV), survival rates have increased for these pathologies. For patients with end-stage chronic respiratory diseases, the use of NIV following the onset of acute or severe chronic respiratory failure is a valid option when intubation has been excluded. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: The following electronic databases were searched from their inception to January 2000 to December 2017: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINHAIL, CENTRAL (Cochrane Central register of Controlled Trials), DARE (Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness), the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, ACP Journal Club database. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: The available evidence strongly supports the use of NIV in patients presenting with an exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, as well end-stage neuromuscular disease. Few studies support the use of NIV in end-stage interstitial lung disease and in morbid obesity patients. In patients with cancer has been recommend offering NIV as palliative care to improve dyspnea. CONCLUSIONS: The decision regarding the treatment should be made by the patient, ideally before reaching the terminal stage and after having a frank dialogue with healthcare professionals and family members.
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© 2019 EDIZIONI MINERVA MEDICA.
- Noninvasive ventilation
- Palliative care
- Respiratory insufficiency
- Terminal care